Download entry PDF. How to cite. The Zhenjiu Dacheng (Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion) is a digest of acupuncture and moxibustion. Zhen jiu da cheng (The great compendium of acupuncture and moxibustion) was compiled by Yang Jizhou (‒), courtesy name Jishi. o in Yang Jizhou published his representative book. Zhen Jiu Da Cheng ( 針灸大成 Great Compendium of. Acupuncture and Moxibustion), which describes.
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Get this from a library! Zhen jiu da cheng. [Jizhou Yang]. Zhen Jiu Zhi Yuo (The Acupuncture and Moxibustion Treatment Essentials of the the Zhen Jiu Da Cheng (The Great Compendium of Acupuncture and. As well as broadening our diagnostic repertoire, they further serve as potential treatment points, following the Zhen Jiu Da Cheng's principle: One has to.
In the Chinese calendar, summer begins around May 5th and autumn begins around August 8th. Question: How is this condition acquired? Answer: All this is caused by excessive bedroom activities with taxation detriment of the kidney channel. Essence withers and blood becomes exhausted.
This is kidney vacuity low back pain. Blood and q become disordered from carrying heavy things and walking far. Reckless hot blood does not return to its origin, so there is low back pain. Compared with a metal needle, laser acupuncture does not pierce skin and has always been considered to have no therapeutic effect as well as no evocation of de qi.
However, in some study reports published in , researchers have demonstrated that subjects with laser acupuncture also experienced de qi [ 32 — 34 ]. On the basis that de qi is the sign of acupuncture efficacy these studies signify that using laser acupuncture as an intervention in the control group may cause underestimation of acupuncture effects.
Practitioner Background De qi is not only a fundamental sign of effective treatment, but also influences the speed of and potential for recovery [ 2 , 5 , 8 ].
Different technical processes of acupuncture insertion and stimulation lead to different characteristics of de qi and therefore different treatment results. As the person that conducts all of these manipulations, the acupuncturist is the vital determinant about the evocation and intensity of de qi. Hence it is essential to report pertinent information about the acupuncturist providing treatment including qualifications or affiliations and years in acupuncture practice, as well as any other experiences that may be relevant to the trial.
Relevant differences if any in the qualification, training, and experience of the participating acupuncturists should be highlighted. Since the level of reporting has historically been poor, recent reviews of acupuncture trials have stressed the need to extensively document these characteristics [ 35 , 36 ]. The eligibility criteria for acupuncturists should also be explained, as these will influence the homogeny of the trial results. Training for the acupuncturists before the trial is necessary and important for achieving uniform manipulations of needle insertion and stimulation to be conducted during the trial.
Where there are known to be potential variations between practitioners, selecting a random sample of practitioners will reduce expertise bias and help improve the applicability of the results [ 37 ]. Discussion The STRICTA checklist clearly states that, in acupuncture RCTs, eliciting of de qi as well as the difference between the responses required in the protocol and those actually obtained should be reported in the Results section [ 15 ].
But there is no mention in the statement of how to assess whether de qi was attained. The majority of acupuncture clinical studies only mention de qi at intervention design without any assessments or reports to describe whether the subjects and acupuncturists actually obtained de qi [ 36 ].
Since different experiences of needle sensations may be associated with different outcomes, it is absolutely essential that de qi is carefully considered. This is especially so given that these RCTs are evaluating the therapeutic effects of acupuncture with de qi being an important variable. The complexity of ensuring that similar levels of de qi were experienced is a major challenge in our field.
For this reason, attempts have been made to apply a scale to quantify the needle sensation. It should be noted that the existing scales and questionnaires do have limitations.
Some experienced acupuncturists have stated that the scale descriptors do not tally with those given by their patients who often described more subtle sensation, such as a cool flow sensation, or sensations going from one point to another [ 40 ].
Furthermore, the terms in some scales are not clear for patients to understand. However, given that de qi sensations have been recognized as an important variable for different individuals, conditions, and needle stimulations, the use of de qi scales will be a promising way to facilitate the de qi sensation being controlled for in clinical and experimental studies.
In addition, quantitatively calculated de qi sensations may offer a meaningful method to further interpret the findings of RCTs and increase validity.
It is also recommended that future studies should assess de qi at each acupuncture consultation to reduce recall bias. In TCM theory, the de qi felt by the acupuncture practitioner is as important as the de qi felt by the patient [ 6 , 8 , 41 ].
For some experts, de qi is an intuitive sensation that is affected by the condition of the patient or the anatomical location of the point and thereby hard to describe or assess in a quantitative or qualitative way. However, the practitioner questionnaire is considered to be a fairly reliable guide to the obtainment of de qi [ 43 ].
Even though there have been many attempts to assess the needle sensations experienced by the practitioner [ 44 ], a validated de qi questionnaire has not been developed. Conclusion In recent years, although there has been increasing evidence from randomized trials and systematic reviews on the efficacy of acupuncture, the conclusions remain controversial.
The lack of significant difference between real and sham acupuncture in RCTs may result from the omission of certain important components of acupuncture, especially the obtainment of de qi. According to the study reports of acupuncture, factors in the STRICTA statement including the point selection, needle stimulation, and depth of insertion will contribute to the achievement of de qi.
Taking all these factors into consideration would have considerable implications for the design and interpretation of acupuncture clinical trials. Meanwhile, assessment of the de qi sensations for both patients and acupuncture practitioners may be conducive to ascertain and control the de qi sensations in future clinical and experimental studies.
References J. Kong, D.
Fufa, A. Gerber et al. Takeda and J. Devereaux and S. Paterson and P. Begg, M. Cho, S. Eastwood et al. Boutron, D.
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Schulz, and P. W—W, Zwarenstein, S. Treweek, J. Gagnier et al. Macpherson, D. Altman, R. Hammerschlag et al. Hui, E. One salient point of the classical theorists is that such a separation is more conceptual than real. To take advantage of this realization, we must become familiar with the extraordinary vessel pathways. Concerning the extraordinary vessels, there has never been such a precise consensus.
Since there have been many interpretations of the earliest explanations of the extraordinary vessels from the Su Wen, Ling Shu and Nan Jing, determining their trajectories is not an easy undertaking. Nonetheless, the main sources for this information must be the earlier classics. We have also used the Lei Jing, or Classic of Categories. It is important to remember that all these great texts are the written record of the experience and observation of their authors.
Thus, in addition to the problems of translating a character language, where there is no absolute certainty that the modern meaning of a character is indeed its ancient meaning, there are the problems inherent in any language. Describing the energetic pathways of the human body in words, or in two dimensional drawings, is no simple task. The mental exercise required to reduce a three dimensional form to words or artistic representation is subject to considerable uncertainty.
Is a line on the side of the face behind the lips on the front of the face, or is it at the front of the side? Though a practitioner or author may easily recognize or locate the indications of a pathway, often he cannot precisely describe this knowledge in a chart or expression.
This is further complicated by the pathway or meridian concept itself. When we write or teach, we find the idea of a channel to be useful. Yet, are there really channels? Are we discussing some physical analog of the meridian concept, if so, is this analog an actual, linear path that contains the energy flow as an aqueduct contains water?
Since what we expect to "flow in the meridians" is an energy, an extremely subtle energy, such a physical conduit is unlikely. Further, physical channels have not been found. What has been found is different electrical properties in areas that correspond to the Oriental medical concepts of points and meridians.
If we are to discuss the flow of energy and ascribe lateral and vertical direction to it, to allocate points along its path and posit the results of stimulating those points, we need to propose some idea of how this energy moves.
We begin with the presumption that when we are discussing meridians we are discussing gradients. Further, these gradients operate within fields, areas of potential influence. Qi, while it may be much more than electricity, is similar to electricity in that it can be described as moving from an area of greater or lesser potential to an area of a complementary and opposite potential.
Thus, meridians may be thought of as the path of least resistance between gradients. The meridian description as a line or channel is a practical means of describing and organizing the phenomena by which we observe the transference of this energy.
This is particularly true of the extraordinary vessels. Often they are described as seas or oceans, clearly implying that the energy is at least more broadly channeled. Their intimate connection to the tai yi and their strong relationship to biorhythmic influences also suggest fields and gradients more strongly than absolute channels.
The classical disagreements among commentators who have described the extraordinary vessels should not be taken as an issue of who is right or wrong. First, some allowance must be made for the linguistic problem of reporting a phenomenon that was largely inferred, rather than anatomically traced.
Second, we must not allow the words of our organizing concept, "meridian," "channel," or "vessel," to misrepresent the phenomena by implying too strongly a physically fixed or absolute line. The line we use to draw the picture is not the meridian. In this sense, "vessel," which implies a larger, less linear container, is a better choice of word. Finally, we must also consider that these vessels are two dimensional only when we describe them in words or drawings. In operation, they are three dimensional and may be wider or thinner at various places along their trajectories.
In response to local gradients, variations in potential, a meridian could be less a channel and more an area.
Thus, these energetic seas and oceans may have their own topography, now a stream, now a river and later perhaps a broad sea. It is useful to remember the concept of a field when thinking of meridians. As noted earlier, this idea from energetic physics is three dimensional and represents an area of kinetic or potential energy.
While fields are often found in relation to material forms and structures, they are entirely energetic. They are shaped by the energetic potentials that are their source and are able to influence other fields. Thus, the idea of a field satisfies all the criteria of a meridian in classical medical thought and provides the conceptual tools necessary to consider energy flow without the limits inherent in the word "channel.
Applications of Extraordinary Vessel Theory This present study of the eight extraordinary vessels is by no means exhaustive. There are undoubtedly variations and descriptions that we have not recorded. However, those presented do include sufficient information for practical application. As students of Oriental medicine we cannot simply accept one theory and forget the rest.
Understanding the generality of the descriptions, particularly the "standard" descriptions that we create as organizational aids, we should be aware of many of these possible pathways. When we palpate a point and find reactiveness, or observe signs and symptoms in an area, it may be a non-standard idea or variant trajectory that provides the clue with which we are able to solve the problem. If we know only one possibility, we diminish our chances of making a complete differential diagnosis.
It is always useful unhappily or interestingly so, depending on one's perspective , to remember that each of these trajectories are just theories. It is inevitable that events in a living human will confound theory. The greater our background knowledge, the greater our chances of helping any patient. It is in treatment that a broad knowledge of theory and diagnosis is particularly useful.
Information regarding the eight extraordinary vessels provides us with a wide range of point correspondences and potential energetic results. Certainly, the trajectories of the vessels demonstrate that considerable energetic exchange and transformation occurs in the abdomen, at the energetic center that we described.
Four of the extraordinary vessels have their origins on, or in, the abdomen. The other four pass over or around the edges. These paths represent the simplest and most obvious level of energetics involved.
There are other deeper energetic functions. The following tables summarize the pathway discussions. This is the rule, according to the rule, one can remove diseases.
If the regular treatment doesn't work, treat the meeting points on the pathways of the vessels. As we will see in the next chapter, the meeting points are probably the "he" points located around the elbows and knees.
The Zhen Jiu Ju Ying seems clearly to refer to the he points, but in the Zhen Jiu Da Cheng, the reference is not so clear, the "meeting" points are just as likely intended. Extraordinary Vessel Meeting or Correspondence Points The following tables summarize the points that are associated with the eight extraordinary vessels.
Palpation and observation of these points is a significant key to the successful use of the extraordinary vessels. Some of the points listed are associated with the twelve meridians or other energetic entities. We have included these as they may be useful. However, correspondence points of the main trajectories are likely more useful.
Palpation is best done using the pads of the thumbs. First apply gentle pressure, then firmer pressure, to confirm the absence or presence of reactions such as pressure pain, tightness, tension, swelling, looseness, puffiness.